Heads of State https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state Mon, 19 Nov 2018 09:58:53 +0000 Joomla! - Open Source Content Management en-gb Kersti Kaljulaid https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/12575-kersti-kaljulaid https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/12575-kersti-kaljulaid vp2Kersti Kaljulaid was born on 30 December 1969 in Tartu.

She graduated from the University of Tartu in 1992 in the field of genetics in the Faculty of Natural Sciences and completed master's studies in the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration in 2001.

From 1994 to 1999, she worked in various Estonian companies: first, as the sales manager of telephone switchboards in Eesti Telefon, later in Hoiupank Markets and Hansapank Markets and as an Associate in investment banking.

From 1999 to 2002, Kersti Kaljulaid was Prime Minister Mart Laar's Economic Advisor. Her duties included organisation of cooperation of the Office of the Prime Minister with Estonian central bank, the Ministry of Finance and ministries that had larger budgets, as well as coordination of relations with the International Monetary Fund and other financial institutions (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Nordic Investment Bank and World Bank). She participated in preparing the pension reform together with the Minister of Finance and the Minister of Social Affairs and advised the Prime Minister in annual budget negotiations held with other ministers.

From 2002 to 2004, Kersti Kaljulaid was the CFO and CEO of the Iru Power Plant of state-owned energy company Eesti Energia.

From 2004 to 2016 she was a Member of the European Court of Auditors. From 2004 to 2006 Kersti Kaljulaid organised the financial audit of the research and development funds of the budget of the European Union and from 2007 to 2010 she was responsible for the audit of the Structural Policies. From 2004 to 2007, she was the auditor of the Galileo project of the European Union. From 2010 to 2016 she coordinated the preparation of the Annual Report and State of Assurance of the European Court of Auditors. From 2005 to 2007, she was a member of the Europol Audit Committee and chaired the committee in 2007. From 2006 to 2008, she was the chair of the Administrative Affairs Committee of the Court of Auditors. From 2010 to 2014, she was responsible for the methodology and preparation of the Annual Report of the Court of Auditors. In 2016, she worked in the field of the agriculture audit.

In addition, Kersti Kaljulaid was a member of the Supervisory Board of the Estonian Genome Center from its foundation until 2002. She was also a member of the Advisory Board of the University of Tartu from 2009 to 2011 and the Council Chair of the University of Tartu since 2012. Kersti Kaljulaid has been a co-author of the social-political radio talk show Keskpäevatund (Midday Hour) in radio station Kuku from 2002 to 2004 and the editor of the Eurominutid (Euro-minutes) radio show from 2007 to 2016 in the same station.

Kersti Kaljulaid is married and has four children.


Career and public service
As of 2016, the President of the Republic of Estonia
2004-2016 Member of the European Court of Auditors
2002-2004 CFO and CEO of the Iru Power Plant of Eesti Energia
1992-2002 Economic Advisor of Prime Minister Mart Laar
1994-1999 worked in various Estonian companies


Involvement in Civic Groups
Since foundation until 2002 – member of the Supervisory Board of the Estonian Genome Center
2009-2011 Member of the Advisory Board of the University of Tartu
Since 2012 the Council Chair of the University of Tartu
2002-2004 co-author of the Keskpäevatund radio talk show in radio station Kuku
2007-2016 editor of the Eurominutid programme in radio station Kuku


Decorations
2016 The Collar of the The Order of the National Coat of Arms (Estonia)
2017 Order of the White Rose of Finland, Grand Cross with Collar


Foreign languages
English, French, Finnish, German

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 17 Oct 2016 07:14:01 +0000
Toomas Hendrik Ilves https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5101-toomas-hendrik-ilves https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5101-toomas-hendrik-ilves The President of the Republic of Estonia 2006-2016


Toomas Hendrik Ilves was born on December 26, 1953, to an Estonian family living in Stockholm, Sweden.

He acquired his education in the United States – he graduated from Columbia University in New York City in 1976 and received his Master's degree in Psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978.

1984 he moved to Europe, to work at the office of Radio Free Europe in Munich, Germany, first as a researcher and foreign policy analyst and later as the Head of the Estonian Desk.

From 1993 to 1996 Toomas Hendrik Ilves served in Washington as the Ambassador of the Republic of Estonia to the United States of America and Canada. During this time he initiated with education minister Jaak Aaviksoo the Tiger Leap initiative to computerize and connect all Estonian schools online. From 1996 to 1998, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs. After a brief period as Chairman of the North Atlantic Institute in 1998, he was again appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving until 2002.

From 2002 to 2004, Mr. Ilves was a Member of the Estonian Parliament; in 2004 he was elected a Member of the European Parliament, where he was vice-president of the Foreign Affairs Committee. As a MEP, he initiated the Baltic Sea Strategy that later was implemented as official regional policy of the European Union.

Toomas Hendrik Ilves was elected President of the Republic of Estonia in 2006. Ilves was re-elected for a second term in office in 2011.

During his presidency Toomas Hendrik Ilves has been appointed to serve in several high positions in the field of ICT in the European Union. He served as Chairman of the EU Task Force on eHealth from 2011 to 2012. From 2012 to 2014, at the invitation of the European Commission, he was Chairman of the European Cloud Partnership Steering Board. From 2014 to 2015 president Ilves was the co-chair of the advisory panel of World Bank's World Development Report 2016 "Digital Dividends" and since June 2014, the chair of World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on Cyber Security.

His interest in computers stems from an early age – he learned to program at the age of 13, and he has been promoting Estonia's IT-development since the country restored its independence. During recent years, president Ilves has spoken and written extensively at integration, trans-atlantic relations, e-government, cyber security and other related topics.

President Ilves has published many essays and articles in Estonian and English on numerous topics ranging from Estonian language, history and literature to global foreign and security policy and cyber security. His books include essay collections in Estonian, Finnish, Latvian Hungarian and Russian.

Toomas Hendrik Ilves has three children: son Luukas Kristjan (1987) and daughter Juulia (1992) from his marriage to Merry Bullock, and daughter Kadri Keiu (2003) from his marriage to Evelin Ilves.

On 2 January 2016 he married Ieva (Kupce) Ilves, who has two children: son Ralfs (2002) and daughter Isabella (2014).


Education

1978 Pennsylvania University (USA), MA in psychology
1976 Columbia University (USA), BA in psychology


Career and public service

2006-2016 President of the Republic of Estonia
2004-2006 Member of the European Parliament
2002-2004 Member of the Parliament of the Republic of Estonia
1999-2002 Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Estonia
1998 Chairman, North Atlantic Institute
1996-1998 Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Estonia
1993-1996 Ambassador of the Republic of Estonia to the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico
1988-1993 Head of the Estonian desk, Radio Free Europe in Munich, Germany
1984-1988 Analyst and researcher for the research unit of Radio Free Europe in Munich, Germany
1983-1984 Lecturer in Estonian Literature and Linguistics, Simon Fraser University, Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vancouver, Canada
1981-1983 Director and Administrator of Art, Vancouver Arts Center, Canada
1979-1981 Assistant Director and English teacher, Open Education Center, Englewood, New Jersey, USA
1974-1979 Research Assistant, Columbia University department of Psychology, USA


Publications

Compilation of speeches and writings from 1986-2006: "Eesti jõudmine. Kõned ja kirjutised aastaist 1986-2006". Varrak, 2006 Tallinn.
Articles in Estonian and other newspapers and magazines.


Involvement in Civic Groups

Member of the Estonian Students Society (Eesti Üliõpilaste Selts) 1995
Member of the Trilateral Commission 2004-2006
Member of the Board of Trustees of think-tank Friends of Europe 2005
Founder of the Estonian Foreign Policy Institute (Eesti Välispoliitika Instituut), Member of the Executive Committee until 2002
Honorary Member of the Latvian Students Society "Austrums"
Member of the Board, Viljandi County Municipal Fund
Board of Trustees, Estonian Academy of Arts 2004-2006
President of the Estonian Special Olympics 1997-2004
Member of the Board of Trustees of Tartu University 1996-2003
European Movement Estonia (EME) Member of the Board, Founding Member 1999-2004
Honorary Member of the Estonian Society in Belgium 2006


Decorations

1999 Knight First Class of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
1999 Grand Cross of the Order of Honour of Greece
2001 Grand Commandeur Legion d'Honneur of the Republic of France
2004 The Order of the National Coat of Arms third Class (Estonia)
2004 Three Star Order of the Republic of Latvia
2006 The Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Estonia)
2006 The Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath of Great Britain
2007 Order of the White Rose of Finland
2007 The Golden Fleece Order of Georgia
2007 Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum of Japan
2007 The Order of Isabel the Catholic with the collar of Spain
2008 The Collar of the The Order of the National Coat of Arms (Estonia)
2008 The Order of Vytautas the Great with the Golden Chain of Lithuania
2008 Grand Cross in the Order of the Netherlands Lion
2008 Grand Cordon Leopold of Belgium
2009 Chain of the Three Star Order of the Republic of Latvia
2009 The Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary
2010 The Order of St. George of Georgia
2011 National Order Star of Romania in rank of Collar
2011 "Dostyk" (Friendship) the Star of Award I of Kazakhstan
2012 The Grand Collar of the National Order of the Merit of the Republic of Malta
2012 The Cross of Recognition of Latvia, I class
2013 Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
2014 Order of the White Eagle of the Republic of Poland
2014 Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav of the Kingdom of Norway
2015 Slovak Republic's Order of the White Double Cross, First Class


International awards

2013 NDI Democracy Award by the National Democratic Institute
2014 Freedom Award by the Atlantic Council
2015 Aspen Prague Award


Expert assignments

2011-2012 Chairman of the EU Task Force on e-Health
2012-2014 Chairman of the European Cloud Computing Steering Board at the invitation of the European Commission
2013 Chairman of the High-Level Panel on Global Internet Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms convened by ICANN
2014-2015 Co-chair of the advisory panel of World Bank's World Development Report 2016 "Digital Dividends"
2014- Chairman of World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on Cyber Security


Foreign languages

English, German, Spanish

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ENG Eesti riigipead Fri, 27 Aug 2010 09:41:57 +0000
Arnold Rüütel https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5102-arnold-rueuetel https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5102-arnold-rueuetel * 10.05.1928 in Saaremaa


President of the Republic
08.10.2001-09.10.2006


The President of the Republic of Estonia 2001-2006


Arnold Rüütel was born on 10 May 1928 in Saaremaa, Estonia.

After graduating from Jäneda Agricultural College, in the years 1949-1950, he worked as a senior agronomist at the department of agriculture of Saaremaa's then administration. Between 1955 and 1957, Arnold Rüütel was a teacher at Tartu School of Mechanization of Agriculture.

In 1957 he became head livestock expert and later on director of an experimental farm of the Estonian Institute for Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Science. From 1963 to 1969 he worked as director of the Tartu Model State Farm and, besides working, graduated from the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the Estonian Agricultural Academy in 1964.

In 1969 Arnold Rüütel was elected rector of the Estonian Agricultural Academy, in which post he, in addition to fulfilling the everyday responsibilities of the leader of the academy, was actively engaged in scientific research.

Since 1977 Arnold Rüütel has held several high state positions, first in the political sphere, later on in the executive and legislative organs of power. In 1983 he was elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR.

Arnold Rüütel played an important role in the preparation of the Estonian sovereignty declaration and its adoption on 16 November 1988, which laid the basis for the disintegration of the USSR. Arnold Rüütel gained in the world a reputation as a defender of Estonia's sovereignty in conflict with the central authorities in Moscow.

In March 1990, the people of Estonia elected Arnold Rüütel to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia and thereafter, in the council's first session, he was elected Chairman of the Supreme Council. Rüütel supported actively the adoption of the resolution "About Estonia's National Status" by the then highest legitimate power in Estonia. In this resolution, it was declared that the state power of the USSR in Estonia was illegal from the very first moment of its enforcement, and a transitional period for the restoration of the Republic of Estonia was declared. Arnold Rüütel was the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia until October 1992.

On 12 May 1990, initiated by Arnold Rüütel, the Council of the Baltic States was established in Tallinn, which, from the point of view of the struggle for independence, played an important role in the formation of a united front of the Baltic States. On 20 August 1991 the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia adopted a resolution on Estonia's national independence and, on 17 September 1991, the Republic of Estonia became a full member of the United Nations Organization. The intense but bloodless struggle for the independence of Estonia had been successful. During these years Arnold Rüütel was the Head of State of Estonia and played an important role in uniting the people and political forces in the struggle for a common cause.

In parallel to leading the state, Arnold Rüütel continued his scientific research and, in 1991, took his doctorate in agriculture. He is Honorary Doctor of Bentley College, USA, Emeritus Professor at the Estonian Agricultural University, Honorary Doctor of the University of Helsinki, Foreign Member of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Honorary Doctor of the II University of Naples, Honorary Doctor of the Szent Istvan University of Hungary, and Honorary Doctor of the L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University of Kazakhstan. He has published more than one hundred scientific works both in Estonia and abroad. In 1991 Arnold Rüütel delivered a speech in the UN General Assembly as the Head of State of Estonia. In 1992 he gave a speech at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. This conference laid the basis for a new stage in global nature conservation.

Between 1991 and 1992 Arnold Rüütel was a member of the Constitutional Assembly drafting the new Constitution of the Republic of Estonia; in 1992 he was a candidate for the presidency of the Republic of Estonia and received 43 % of the people's votes. In 1995, receiving a record number of votes, he was elected to the Riigikogu (the Parliament of Estonia) and, thereafter, Vice-Chairman of the Riigikogu. From 1994 to 2000 Arnold Rüütel was chairman of the centre-right Estonian Rural People's Party, one of the largest among Estonian political parties. Since 1999 the Party's name has been Estonian People's Union.

In 1995 Arnold Rüütel was elected head of the delegation of Riigikogu to the Baltic Assembly and then, alternately up to 1999, Chairman of the Presidium of the Baltic Assembly.

Apart from his work, Arnold Rüütel is also known for his active participation in public life. From 1981 to 1988, he was Chairman of the Estonian Society for Nature Conservation advocating preservation of nature and, 1989-2002, Chairman of the Forselius Society promoting educational life. In 1993 Arnold Rüütel became the founder of the non-governmental Institute for National Development and Cooperation, the aim of which is to examine the main development factors in Estonia. In 1993 he became President of the Estonian National Organisation of the Green Cross International. The main concern of this organization has been the purification of the pollution caused by the Soviet army and its consequences on the territory of Estonia, and to keep Estonia tidy and nature-friendly for the coming generations. In the same year Arnold Rüütel became Chairman of the movement "Protect the Estonian Sea". This organization takes care of the Estonian coastline of 3,5 thousand kilometres and is committed to the restoration and establishment of small harbours.

Ingrid Rüütel, Arnold Rüütel's wife, is a Doctor of Humanities, an internationally known specialist in folklore, President of the folklore association Baltica. They have two daughters and six grandchildren.

Elected by an electoral college on 21 September 2001, Arnold Rüütel was inaugurated as the President of the Republic of Estonia on 8 October 2001.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Fri, 27 Aug 2010 09:42:16 +0000
Lennart Meri https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5103-lennart-meri https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5103-lennart-meri * 29.03.1929 in Tallinn
† 14.03.2006 in Tallinn


President of the Republic
06.10.1992-08.10.2001


The President of the Republic of Estonia 1992-2001 (auf Deutsch)

Lennart Meri was born on March 29, 1929, in Tallinn in the family of the Estonian diplomat and later Shakespeare translator Georg Meri. With his family, Lennart Meri left Estonia at an early age and had to study abroad, in nine different schools and in four different languages. His warmest memories are from his school years in Lycée Janson de Sailly in Paris.

The family was in Tallinn at the time when Estonia was occupied by the Soviet armed forces. In 1941, the Meri family was deported to Siberia along with thousands of Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians sharing the same fate. Heads of the family were separated from their families and shut into concentration camps where few survived. At the age of twelve, Lennart Meri started his career as a lumberman. He has also worked as a professional potato peeler and a rafter.

The Meri family survived and found their way back to Estonia, where Lennart Meri graduated cum laude from the Faculty of History and Languages of Tartu University in 1953. The Soviet administration did not allow him to work as a historian. Lennart Meri found work as a dramatist in the Vanemuine, the oldest theatre of Estonia, and later on as a producer of radio plays in the Estonian broadcasting.

After the trip to the Tian-Shan Mountains in the Central Asia and the old Islamic centres in the Kara-Kum Desert in 1958, Lennart Meri wrote his first book, which met the warm reception of the readers. Already as a student, Lennart Meri had had to earn his living with writing, after his father had been arrested by the Soviet powers for the third time. With the help of his younger brother who had to quit his studies and take a job as a taxi-driver, he managed to support their mother and to complete his studies. And yet it was only through his first book that Lennart Meri discovered his true calling. For a quarter of the century he wandered alone or arranged expeditions to the regions of the Soviet Union that were the hardest to reach, and where he was fascinated by the cultures of small ethnic groups, the history of the discovery and colonisation of Siberia and the constantly aggravating economic and ecological conflict between the local needs and the planned economy of the Soviet Moscow. The books and films born of these travels managed to penetrate the iron curtain and have been translated into a dozen languages. The film "The Winds of the Milky Way", shot in co-operation with Finland and Hungary, was banned in the Soviet Union, but won a silver medal on the New York Film Festival. In Finnish schools, his films and texts were used as study materials. In 1986, Lennart Meri was awarded the Honorary Doctorate of the Helsinki University. He had become a member of the Estonian Writers' Union already earlier, in 1963. In the Seventies, he was elected the Honorary Member of the Finnish Literary Society.

Between his travels, Lennart Meri translated the works of Remarque, Graham Greene, Vercors, Boulle and Solzhenitsyn. At the time of the totalitarian russification campaigns, Meri's literary works, films and translations significantly contributed to the preservation of the Estonian national identity. His "Silverwhite", which became the most popular of his works, an extensive reconstruction of the history of Estonia and the Baltic Sea region, depicted Estonians as free people in Northern Europe, as active agents in an open world.

After more than twenty years of expectations, the Soviet administration finally gave the permission for Lennart Meri to travel behind the iron curtain, and Meri persistently used the opportunities open to him in Finland to remind the Free world of the existence of Estonia. He established trustful relationships with the politicians, journalists and the Estonians who had fled from the occupation. He was the first Estonian to take abroad the protest against the Soviet plan of mining phosphate in Estonia, which would have rendered a third of the country uninhabitable.

In Estonia, environment protection soon grew into "the Singing Revolution", which was led by the Estonian intellectuals. Lennart Meri's speech "Have Estonians Got Hope" focused on the existential problems of the nation and had strong repercussions also abroad. Lennart Meri's shift of focus from literary to political activities was smooth and yet antedated the political events. In 1988, he founded the non-governmental Estonian Institute to promote cultural contacts with the West and to send the Estonian students to study abroad. Estonia's cultural missions opened under the umbrella of the Estonian Institute in Copenhagen, Stockholm, London, Bonn, Paris and Helsinki functioned as embassies and became officially so in August 1991, when the democratic West restored diplomatic relations with the Republic of Estonia.

Neither for Estonia herself nor for the West had the Soviet occupation disrupted the continuity of the Republic of Estonia or eliminated her international obligations and rights. Therefore, Estonia does not belong to the "new democracies", as the Republic of Estonia was an active member of the League of Nations already in 1921. Lennart Meri signed the instruments for the restoration of diplomatic relations already as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. To this post he had been appointed on April 12, 1990, by Edgar Savisaar, leader of the Popular Front, after the first non-communist elections. Prior to this, Lennart Meri and other authors had already published the collection of documents titled "1940 in Estonia" (1989), which unsuccessfully attempted to convince the Soviet members of the Parliament that the occupation and Sovietisation of Estonia were based on the criminal Hitler-Stalin pact dividing Europe between the two totalitarian regimes.

As the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lennart Meri's first task was to create the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to employ studious young people, and to establish a steady communication channel to the West, and at the same time, to represent Estonia on the more important international conferences. He participated in the CSCE Conferences in Copenhagen, New York, Paris, Berlin and Moscow, on the foundation conference of the Council of the Baltic Sea Countries, had several meetings with the American and European Heads of State and Ministers of Foreign Affairs, and was the first East European guest to give a presentation at the NATO Headquarters in Brussels.

After a brief period as an Ambassador of Estonia to Finland (23.04.1992 - 10.10.1992) Lennart Meri was elected the President of the Republic of Estonia. Lennart Meri was sworn to the office of the President on October 6, 1992. On September 20, 1996, Lennart Meri was elected the President of the Republic of Estonia for the second term of office.

During his work as a writer and a politician, Lennart Meri was elected a Foreign Member of the Kalevala Society, a Corresponding Member of the Finnish Literary Society; he was also a Member of the Board of the European Academy of Arts, Sciences and Humanities and Co-President of its Committee of Honour, and a Member of the Board of the International Council of the Memorial Foundation for the Victims of Communism and Member of the Inter-Parliamentary Council against Antisemitism. As earlier, he was a member of the Estonian Writers Union, the Estonian Cinematographer's Union and the Estonian PEN, and also patron of the Tartu University Foundation. Lennart Meri was awarded the Coudenhove-Kalergi European Award and the Prize of Freedom of the Liberal International and decorations of several countries, he was also elected the European of the Year in 1998. In 2001, Lennart Meri was elected a full member of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. From 2002 to 2003, he was the Estonian Government's representative to the Convention on the Future of Europe.

Lennart Meri was married twice. His second wife Helle Meri (1949) worked as an actress in the Estonian Drama Theatre until 1992. Lennart Meri's first wife Regina Meri emigrated to Canada in 1987. Lennart Meri had three children – sons Mart (1959) and Kristjan (1966) and daughter Tuule (1985) – and four grandchildren.

Lennart Meri is buried at the Metsakalmistu cemetery in Tallinn.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Fri, 27 Aug 2010 09:42:30 +0000
Heinrich Mark https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5104-heinrich-mark https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5104-heinrich-mark * 01.10.1911 in the Krootuse (Kõlleste) rural municipality in the Võru County
† 02.08.2004 in Stockholm


Prime Minister in duties of the President
01.03.1990-06.10.1992


1953-1971 State Secretary, 1971-1990 Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of War of the Estonian Exile Government.

Studied in Võru, graduated from the Teachers' Seminar of Tartu. In 1933-1938 studied at the legal department of Tartu University.

In 1938-1940 elementary school teacher. In 1940 solicitor to the barrister P. Sepp in Tartu, in 1941-1943 a solicitor in Tallinn. In 1940, after the occupation of Estonia was a secretary of Tartu University for a short period, left on the recommendation of the rector H. Kruus. In 1940, put up a candidacy for the Riigivolikogu elections as an alternative candidate to the Estonian Working People's Union, was deleted from the list of candidates. Later hid in Estonia, escaped to Finland in 1943, was one of the organisers of the Estonian Bureau (an Estonian exile organisation) and assistant to the Editor-in-Chief of the "Malevlane" (a newspaper of the Estonians in the Finnish Army).

In 1944 moved to Sweden, was an assistant at the National Committee of Foreigners. In 1945- 1956, was Chairman of the education working group of the Estonian Committee, 1954-1975 Director of the Bureau and assistant Chairman of the Estonian Committee, 1975-1982 Chairman of the Estonian Committee, from 1982 Honorary Chairman of the Estonian Committee. In 1951-1979 Secretary-General of the Estonian National Council.

In 1998 Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University. Honorary Member of the Estonian Literature Society, Golden Badge of the Estonian National Foundation, the I Class Gold Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland, the II Class Order of the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Estonia.

Heinrich Mark was cremated and his ashes interred in the memorial lawn at the Forest Cemetery in Stockholm.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:08:16 +0000
Tõnis Kint https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5105-tonis-kint https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5105-tonis-kint * 17.08.1896 in Taevere rural municipality, Viljandi County
† 05.01.1991 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden


Prime Minister in duties of the President

23.12.1970-01.03.1990


1938-1940 member of the Riigivolikogu (second chamber of the Riigikogu 1938-1940). 1953-1963 Minister of Agriculture, 1963-1970 Deputy Prime Minister of the Estonian Exile Government.

Graduated from the High School of Sciences in Tartu, in 1916 studied in the building department of the Riga Polytechnical School, which was evacuated to Moscow, in 1918 studied in the agricultural department of the Baltic Technical University, opened in Riga by the German occupation administration on the basis of the Riga Polytechnical School and in 1920-1928 intermittently at the agricultural dept. of Tartu University, in 1924 additional education in the agricultural and veterinary department in Copenhagen Agricultural and Veterinary University.

1916 was mobilised to the Russian Army, finished the military school of Tsaritsyn (today Volgograd in Russia) in 1917, in 1917-1918 in the first World War served in an infantry regiment of the Russian Army, in the beginning of the year 1918 in a newly formed Estonian regiment at Viljandi. 1918-1920 in the Estonian War of Liberty, served on the broad-tracked armour train No. 2, as Commander of its machine-gun commandos. At the end of the war acting commander of the train, Lieutenant.

1925-1928 Assistant Head, 1928-1932 Head of Agricultural Bookkeeping Department, 1932-1938 Assistant and Managing Director, 1938-1940 Director of the Chamber of Agriculture. In 1940 put up a candidacy on the Riigivolikogu elections as one of the counter-candidates of the "Estonian Working People's Union", his candidacy was deleted with other counter-candidacies. In 1940-1941 lived in his father's farm at Paasioja. During the German occupation was director of the of the market management department in the Eesti Omavalitsus (Estonian Self-Government), was released due to conflicts with the occupation power, thereafter lived in his father's farm and worked in the Estonian Consumers' Centre.

In 1944 escaped to Sweden, 1945-1949 was employed at the Uppsala Agricultural University (at Ultuna) as archive assistant, 1945-51 an agricultural adviser in the Stockholm County, and in 1951-1975 a researcher for the Swedish Agricultural Union (Landbrukarnas Riksförbund) and in its Agricultural Economics Research Institute (Jordbrukets Utredningsinstitut), in 1957 Editor-in-Chief of the "Teataja" newspaper. Resigned in 1975.

From 1950 Member of the Board, later Honorary Member of the Agricultural Union of Free Estonians, 1971-1975 Chairman of the Estonian National Council, Honorary Member and Honorary Chairman of the Estonian Agronomists' (agricultural advisers') Society in Sweden, Honorary Member of the Swedish Society for the Development of Rural Regions (Sällskapet för Landbygdsutveckling).

Chevalier of the Polish Order of Restitution (Order Odrodzenia Polski).

Publications in the field of agriculture, published memoirs, and the book "The Broad Tracked Armour Train No. 2 in the War of Liberty" with Edvin Reinvaldt.

On 17.08.2013 was reburied to the Metsakalmistu in Tallinn.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:07:56 +0000
Aleksander Warma (Varma) https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5106-aleksander-warma-varma https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5106-aleksander-warma-varma * 22.06.1890 in the Viinistu village, Kõnnu rural municipality, Harju County
† 23.12.1970 in Stockholm

 

Prime Minister in duties of the President
30.03.1963-23.12.1970

 

1924-1926, assistant to the jurisconsult of the Ministry of Defence, later codificator. In 1926-1927 Director of the legal bureau of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1927-1931 later Director of the Administrative Dept. of Foreign Affairs, 1931-1933 Counsellor of the Estonian Embassy in Moscow, 1933-1938 Consul-General in Leningrad (today St. Petersburg), 1938-1939 Estonian Ambassador to Lithuania, 1939-1944 to Finland. 1953-1962 Minister of foreign Affairs and Acting Minister of Justice, 1962-1963 Deputy Prime Minister in duties of the Minister of foreign Affairs of the Estonian Exile Government.

Studied in the marine schools of Käsmu and Narva, took a deep sea captain's exam in Riga and 1920 the high school exams to the examination committee of the Tallinn Teachers' Seminar. 1920-1924 studied at the dept. of law of Tartu University, graduated with the 1st degree diploma, 1928 Master of Law.

1907-1914 (with intervals) a stoker, seaman, boatswain and mate on merchant ships. In 1914-1918 served in the Russian Navy in World War I. 1918-1919 Head of the Office of the Estonian Maritime Dept., 1919-1920 assistant to the Staff Commander of Naval Forces, later Staff Commander. 1920-1924 jurisconsult of the Staff of Naval Forces and commander of the navy ship "Mardus". In 1926 retired as Lieutenant Commander.

Was an editor of the Exile-Estonian paper "Teataja" (Gazette) in Sweden for some time.

Cross of Freedom I/3. Has published papers on the history of the War of Liberty and other memoirs.

On 25.08.2002 was reburied to the Metsakalmistu in Tallinn.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:07:37 +0000
Jüri Uluots https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5108-jueri-uluots https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5108-jueri-uluots * 13.01.1890 in the Kirbla rural municipality, Lääne (Western Estonia) County
† 09.01.1945 in Stockholm

 

Prime Minister in duties of the President
17.06.1940-09.01.1945

 

1937-1940 Chairman of the central leadership of the Fatherland's Union (the only legal political party since 1937), 1938-1939 Chairman of the Riigivolikogu (second chamber of the Riigikogu 1938-1940), 1939-1940 Prime Minister. 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-1926 member of I, II, 1929-1932 member of IV Riigikogu, 1938-1940 member of Riigivolikogu. 18.09.1944 appointed O. Tief's Government.

Finished Pärnu State High School, 1910-1916 studied at the law department of the St. Petersburg University, graduated with the 1st degree diploma (simple graduation). In 1916-1918, got the St. Petersburg University scholarship for Roman law and civil law.

1920-1924 Assistant Professor of Roman law at Tartu University, 1924-1925 Acting Professor of the history of Estonian law, 1925-1927 extraordinary, 1927-1940 and 1942-1944 ordinary Professor. 1921-1924 Secretary, 1924-1931 Dean of the legal department, 1931-1934 Prorector of the University. 1938-1940 member of the Estonian Academy of Sciences.

1918-1919 court investigator and Justice of the Peace in Haapsalu. 1919-1920 editor of the "Kaja" (Echo) newspaper. 1922-1924 assistant prosecutor of the civil department of the State Court. 1937-1938, Editor-in-Chief of the "Postimees" newspaper.

1922-1925 the secular Vice- President of the Consistory of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1926-1929 member of the Ecclesiastical Supreme Court of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church. 1928-1940 member of the Estonian-German court of arbitration. 1924-1932 Chairman of the Academic Law Society, 1930-1934 member of the board and council of the Tartu University Congregation, Chairman of the Estonian Group of the International Union of Parliaments, etc., 1928-1940 member of the National Archive Council, 1935-1940 of the National Cultural Foundation Council, 1937-1940 of the board of the Estonian-Finnish Society, as well as the council of the Educational Union, board of the Committee of the History of the War of Liberty, etc.

1932 Honorary Doctor of Law of the Szeged University, 1932 Honorary Member of the Academic Law Society. Participated in the creation of the Estonian legislation, has published papers in the field of Estonian history.

1940-1941 hid himself in Estonia, in 1944 escaped to Sweden.

31.08.2008 was reburied to the Kirbla Cemetery.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:06:02 +0000
Kaarel Eenpalu (until 1935 Karl August Einbund) https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5111-kaarel-eenpalu https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5111-kaarel-eenpalu † 27.01.1942 in the Vyatka prison camp, Kirov (Vyatka) Oblast, Russia

Head of State (Elder of State)
19.07.1932-01.11.1932


1919-1920 State Auditor, 1920, 1921-1924 and 1924-1926 Minister of Internal Affairs, was the founder of Estonian Police. 1926-1934 (intermittently) Chairman of the III, IV and V Riigikogu. 1934-1938 Minister of Internal Affairs, 1938-1939 Prime Minister. 1919-1920 Member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-1934/1937 member of the I-V Riigikogu, 1938- 1940 member of the Riigivolikogu (second chamber of the Riigikogu 1938-1940).

Finished the H. Treffner's Private High School, in 1909-1914 studied in the legal department of Tartu University, graduated at the Moscow University.

In 1914-1917 in World War I, 1917- 1918 commander of the 5th battery of the 1st Estonian Artillery Regiment. In 1918-1919 Commander of the Tartu high school students' battalion in the War of Liberty, in 1919 commander of the 7th battery of the 2nd artillery regiment. In 1910-1912 and 1915 member of the editorial board of ?Postimees?, 1918 editor of "Postimees", in 1920 Editor-in -Chief of "Tallinna Teataja"? (Tallinn Gazette), 1924 of "Kaja" (Echo). 1925-1940 managed the Hellema farm in Rae rural municipality near Aruküla, in 1939-1940 Director General of Estonian Phosphate (Eesti Fosforiit, State Enterprise) in Maardu.

1927-1932 Chairman of the Educational Society, in 1928-1933 Chairman of the Estonian Group in the International Union of Parliaments, in 1930-1932 Chief Leader of Young Eagles (youth organisation of Estonian Defence League), in 1930-1935 Chairman of the Estonian- Polish Society, 1932 Chairman of the Chamber of Agriculture, 1924-1940 Assistant Chairman of the Council of Elders of the Defence League, in 1923-1940 Member of the Estonian Olympic Committee, etc.

Honorary member of the Council of Officers of the 2nd Artillery Regiment 1922, of the Estonian-Polish Society from 1929, of the Students' Unit of the Defence League from 1932, of the Tartu Estonian Farmers' Union from 1936, of the Estonian Voluntary Firemen's Union from 1936, of the Estonain Institute of Natural Resources from 1938; from 1937 honorary citizen of the Rae rural municipality.]]>
ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:04:57 +0000
August Rei https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5107-jueri-uluots https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5107-jueri-uluots * 22.03.1886 at Pilistvere, Viljandi County
† 29.03.1963 in Stockholm

 

Head of State (Elder of State)
04.12.1928-09.07.1929
Prime Minister in duties of the President
09.01.1945-29.03.1963

 

In 1918-1919, Minister of labour and Social Welfare of the Provisional Government, Deputy Prime Minister and Acting Minister of Education. In 1919-1920 Chairman of the Constitutent Assambly (Asutav Kogu). In 1923-1925, Head of the Estonian delegation in the Estonian- Latvian Border Committee. In 1925-1926 Chairman of the II Riigikogu, 1932-1933 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1936-1937 Assistant to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1938-1940 the Estonian Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Minister of Foreign Affairs in O. Tief's Government in September 1944. In 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly, 1920-1934/1937 member of the I-V Riigikogu.

Studied in the Tartu Emperor Alexander High School (the former State High School of of Livonian Province), finished the Novgorod State High School. In 1904-1905 and in 1907- 1911, studied law in the St. Petersburg University.

In 1905-1907 he participated in the Russian revolution of 1905, in 1906 edited the underground paper "Sotsiaaldemokraat" (Social Democrat) in Tallinn. In 1912-1913 was in compulsory army service, in 1913-1914 a lawyer in Viljandi. In 1914-1917 an artillery officer in World War I in the Fort of St. Petersburg, in 1917-1918 in the Estonian army units (formed after the Second Russian Revolution in March 1917 by they initiative of Estonian politicians, who achieved the permission to concentrate the Estonian soldiers, who served in Russian Imperial Army, into Estonian territory), was the Assistant Chairman of the Supreme Committee of the Estonian military. In 1917 and 1919 the Editor-in-Chief of the paper "Sotsiaaldemokraat", in 1927-1928 the editor of "Rahva Sõna" (Word of the People). Up to 1936 also a barrister, defended Aadu Birk in 1927. In 1930-1934, Head of the Tallinn City Council. In 1940 the Estonian Ambassador to the Soviet Union, escaped to Sweden via Riga in June 1940. In 1946-1949 Chairman of the Estonian National Foundation in exile, in 1947-1963 Chairman of the Estonian National Council.

1930-1936 President of the Alliance Francaise, 1937-1938 Assistant Chairman of the Estonian Foreign Relations Society, has also been chairman of the Estonian Workers' Musical Union and the Tallinn Workers' Music Society, the "Rahva Sõna" (Word of the People) publishers' ltd., publishing house "Täht" (Star), the foundation "Tallinna Rahvamaja" (Tallinn People's House), Tallinn Workers' Theatre and Tallinn Workers' Sports Society.

Cross of Freedom III/1, 1932, Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University.

Has written and translated socialist works, published memoirs.

On 27.08.2006 was reburied to the Metsakalmistu in Tallinn.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:06:02 +0000
Jaan Teemant https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5112-jaan-teemant https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5112-jaan-teemant * 24.09.1872 in Illuste, Lääne County
† beginning of July 1941, Tallinn

 

Head of State (Elder of State)
15.12.1925-09.12.1927
19.02.1932-19.07.1932

 

1917-1919 member of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu) and 1923-1934/1937 member of the II-V Riigikogu. 1918 Attorney General of the Republic of Estonia.

Studied in H. Treffner's Private High School, in 1901 graduated from the Department of Law the St. Petersburg University.

Was a solicitor in Tallinn. 1904-1905 was a member of the Tallinn Municipal Council. Participated in the revolution of 1905, escaped to Switzerland in the same year and was sentenced to death by default. In 1908, came back to Estonia after the end of the state of war, was in pretrial imprisonment in 1908-1909 and was sentenced to prison for one and a half years, bore the sentence in St. Petersburg. In 1911- 1913 was in exile in the Arkhangelsk Province. 1913/1914-1940 a barrister in Tallinn, 1919- 1925 Chairman of the Bar. In 1939-1940, the Estonian trustee in the German Trustee Government (an organisation for managing of the property of the resettled Baltic-Germans in 1939-1940).

1932 Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University.

23.07.1940 was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police), was probably shot in Tallinn or died in the Tallinn Central Prison. According to other data was sentenced to prison camp for 10 years on 21.10.1941, no information of his further fate.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:04:40 +0000
Jüri Jaakson https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5114-jueri-jaakson https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5114-jueri-jaakson * 16.01.1870 Karula (later Uue-Võidu) rural municipality in the Viljandi County
† 20.04.1942 in Sosva, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia

 

Head of State (Elder of State)
16.12.1924-15.12.1925

 

1917 assistant to the Commissar of Estonian Province, 1917-1918 member and Assistant Chairman of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), 1918 General Commissioner of the Provisional Government for taking over property from the German occupation powers, 1918-1920 Minister of Justice of the Provisional Government and the Government of the Republic. In 1920-1932, member of the I-IV Riigikogu. 1926-1940 President of the Bank of Estonia, 1935-1938 member of the National Economic Council, 1938-1940 Member of the Riiginõukogu (first chamber of the Riigikogu in 1938-1940).

Studied in H. Treffner's Private High School and 1892-1896 in the legal department of Tartu University, graduated with the 1st degree diploma (simple graduation).

1897-1901 was a solicitor in Viljandi, 1901-1902 in Riga. In 1902-1914 a barrister in Riga. In 1915-1919, member of the Board of the Tallinn City Bank (Tallinna Linnapank).

Win 1898-1901 Chairman of the Viljandi Farmers' Society and the society "Koit" (Dawn), Chairman of the Estonian Abstinence Society in Riga, in 1902-1905 also Chairman of the Estonian Society "Imanta" in Riga, 1906-1914 Chairman of the Estonian Education and Assistance Society in Riga, In 1904-1920 member and chairman of the Curate Council of the Emperor Alexander Estonian High School (founded on the private initiative of the Estonian societies), 1915-1919 Chairman of the Central Society of the North Estonian Farmers, chairman of the Council of the Tallinn Economic Union. In 1936, founded a personal foundation for supporting of the pupils of the H. Treffner's Private High School in Tartu (20 000 kroons).

14.06.1941 was imprisoned by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police), taken to Russia, sentenced to death and shot.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:04:01 +0000
Friedrich Karl Akel https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5115-friedrich-karl-akel https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5115-friedrich-karl-akel * 05.09.1871 in the Nosi cattle breeding estate, Kaubi rural municipality, Pärnu County
† 03.07.1941 in Tallinn

 

Head of State (Elder of State)
26.03.1924-16.12.1924

 

1922-1923 Ambassador of Estonia to Finland, 1923-1924, 1926-1927 and 1936-1938, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1928-1934 Estonian Ambassador in Stockholm and in 1934-1936 in Berlin. 1923-1929, member of II and III Riigikogu, 1938-1940, Member of the Riiginõukogu (the second Chamber of the Estonian Parliament 1938-1940).

Finished the High School of the Livonian Province in Tartu, studied in the department of medicine of Tartu University in 1892-1897.

Was an assistant in the Tartu University Clinic in 1897-1898, 1898-1899 and 1901-1902 a doctor in the Reimers ophthalmology clinic in Riga, 1899-1901 a doctor in the Ujazdov hospital in Warsaw, in 1901 studied in Berlin, Prague and Leipzig. 1902-1904 and 1905-1912 a private ophthalmologist in Tallinn, in 1907 one of the founders of the Private Clinic of Estonian Physicians, 1912 founded his own eye clinic. 1904- 1905 was in the Russia-Japan war as a physician. Has also been a member and a chairman of the Tallinn Municipal Council, and the Honorary Justice of the Peace in the Tallinn- Haapsalu Peace Council.

Was a member the Board of the Northern Baltic Union of Physicians and the Tallinn Popular Education society, Chairman of the sports society "Kalev", building society of "Estonia" theatre and the Estonian Society "Estonia" in Tallinn, Member and Chairman of the Council and member of the Board of the Tallinn Loan and Savings Society, later the Tallinn "Krediitpank" (Credit Bank), 1920-1922 secular Vice President of the Consistory of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1927-1932 Estonia's representative in the International Olympics Committee.

17.10.1940 was imprisoned by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police), shot in Tallinn on 03.07.1941.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:03:43 +0000
Juhan (Johann) Kukk https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5116-juhan-johann-kukk https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5116-juhan-johann-kukk * 13.04.1885 Käru, Salla rural municipality, Viru County
† 04.12.1942 in the Kargopollag prison camp, Archangel Oblast, Russia 

 

Head of State (Elder of State)
21.11.1922-02.08.1923

 

1917-1918 Head of the Financial Dept. of the Estonian Province Government (Maavalitsus), 1918-1919 Financial and State Property Minister of the Provisional Government, 1919-1920 Minister of Finance of the Republic of Estonia, 1920-21 Minister of Commerce and Industry, 1921-1922 Chairman of the I Riigikogu, 1924-1926 Director of the Bank of Estonia. Member of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu) in 1917-1919, of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu) 1919-1920, of the I and II Riigikogu, 1920-1926.

Finished the Tartu High School of Sciences, studied in the Commerce Deptartment of the Riga Polytechnical School in 1904-1910 and got additional education in Germany, graduated with the diploma of first degree.

Was a clerk of the Tartu I Loan and Savings Society in 1910-1912 and the publisher and editor of "Ühistegevusleht" (Cooperation Paper) in 1911-1919/1920, from 1914 Head of the Cooperation Bureau, in 1915-1919 Chairman of the Cooperation Promotion Society, Member of the Estonian Nutrition Committee during World War I, in 1919- 1930, Chairman of the Council of the Estonian Cooperation Union. In 1923-1924 and in 1926- 1930 he was Director of the Central Union of the Estonian Consumers Union, for some time also the Chairman of the Board of this Union. from 1920, Chairman of the Board of Rahvapank (People's Bank), member of the board, later of the council of the customers' society "Oma", in 1931-1940, Chairman of the Board of the Baltic Cotton Spinning and Weaving Factory (Balti Manufaktuur) Ltd, 1933-1940 Director of "Kreenbalt Ltd", in 1925- 1940, Chairman of the Board of the "National Peat Industry" (from 1936 "Estonian Peat Industry"), 1930-1931, Assistant Chairman of the Exchange Committee and Chairman of the Banking Section of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 1937-1940 Member of the Board of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry as a representative of large-scale industry, 1936- 1940, Chairman of the All-Estonian Union of Textile Manufacturers, etc. 1933-1934 temporary lecturer of credit and industry policies at the Tartu University.

Was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police) in 1940, died in imprisonment.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:03:14 +0000
Ants Piip https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5117-ants-piip https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5117-ants-piip * 28.02.1884 in Tuhalaane rural municipality Viljandi County
† 01.10.1942 Perm District, Russia

 

Prime Minister
26.10.1920-20-12.1920
Head of State (Elder of State)
20.12.1920-25.01.1921

 

In 1917-1919 member of the Estonian Foreign Mission in St. Petersburg and in London, participated in the Paris Peace Conference. 1919 Assistant to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1919-1920 Member of the Estonian delegation in the peace negotiations between Estonia and the Soviet Russia. In 1920, the diplomatic representative the Republic of Estonia in Great Britain. 1920-1921 while Elder of State, also the Minister of War. Minister of Foreign Affairs 1921-1922, 1925-1926, 1933 and 1939-1940, 1923-1925 the Ambassador of Estonia to the United States of America. 1917-1918 member of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-1923 member of the Riigikogu, and 1938-1940 member of the Riigivolikogu (second chamber of the Riigikogu 1938-1940).Studied at the Teachers' Seminar in Kuldiga (Goldingen, today in Latvia). 1903-1905 a parish clerk and schoolteacher at Aluksne (Alulinn, Marienburg, today in Latvia), also a teacher in the Emperor Nikolai Greek Orthodox Parish School in Kuressaare in 1905-1906, in the Kuressaare Marine School in 1906-1912, and in the Janson Merchant School in St. Petersburg in 1913-1915. Took his High School exams at the Kuressaare State High School, studied at the law department of the St. Petersburg University in 1908-1913, took additional courses in the Berlin University in 1912, received a scientific scholarship from the St. Petersburg University in 1913-1916.

In 1917 a private Assistant Professor in the St. Petersburg University and an official in the Department of Nations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, in 1916-1917 in service of the General Court Administration of the Russian Ministry of Justice as a military official. In 1906-1907 editor of the paper "Hääl" (The Voice) in Kuressaare. In 1923, Editor-in-Chief of the "Vaba Maa". Solicitor in 1914-1923, barrister in 1923-1940, Acting Professor of International Law in Tartu University in 1919-1924, Professor of International Law 1924-1940, Chairman of the University's Academic Court in 1930-1939, visiting lecturer in California University in 1932. Member of the Tartu Municipal Council 1930-1940, Chairman of the Council 1935-1938.

One of the founders of the Kuressaare Loan and Savings Society, Chairman of the Saaremaa Teachers' Union and the Estonian Child Protection Society. Chairman of the Estonian Society of the League of Nations (1937-1940 the Society of Foreign Relations) in 1922-1940. In 1929-1940 President of the Tartu French Academic Institute, 1929-1940 Chairman of the Pan- European Society, 1930-1938 assistant to the Chief of the Young Eagles, Chairman to the Estonian-Latvian Society in 1932-1940, the Academic Law Society in 1932-1940, Bureau for the Co-operation of the Baltic Countries in 1935-1937, the Estonian Committee of the International Commission for Intellectual Co-operation, member of the Arbitrary Commission of Finland and the United States of North America (1929-1940) and that of Estonia and the United States of North America (1930- 1940), and Chairman of the Greece-United States of North America Arbitrary Commission). Has been Member of the Boards of the "Vaba Maa" Ltd and the Bank of Tartu, Chairman of the Commission for the solving of the conflicts between employers and employees in 1935-1938, etc.)

Cross of Freedom III/1, 1939, Honorary citizen of the Tuhalaane rural municipality.

Papers on Constitutional, international, business law etc.

Imprisoned by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police) on 30.06.1941, died in prison camp.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:02:55 +0000
Aadu (Ado) Birk https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5118-aadu-ado-birk https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5118-aadu-ado-birk * 14.11.1883 in the Tarvastu rural municipality
† 02.02.1942 in Sosva, Oblast of Sverdlovsk, Russia

 

Prime Minister
28.07.1920-30.07.1920

 

1917 provisional secretary of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), 1918 representative of Estonia in Helsinki, 1918-1919 Chairman of the Estonian Province Assembly and Chairman of the General Committee for the election of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1919-1920 Assistant Chairman of the Constituent Assembly, 1919- 1920, 1920, 1925 Minister of Foreign Affairs. 1917-1919 member of the Estonian Province Assembly, 1919?1920 member of the Constituent Assembly, 1920-1922 member of the Riigikogu. 1922-1926 Estonian Ambassador to the Soviet Union.

Graduated from the Theological (Orthodox) Seminary in Riga, studied in the St. Petersburg (Orthodox) Theological Academy, and in the law departments of the Tartu (1907-1908), St. Petersburg (1908-1911) and Leipzig (1911) universities.

1911-12 Head of the Tallinn Statistical Bureau. 1912-1917 solicitor to barrister Jaan Poska. As an Ambassador to the Soviet Union, had in the beginning of 1926 a conflict with the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, refused to return after his demotion. In summer 1926 fell victim to the provocation of the Soviet secret service GPU, was imprisoned in Russia, returned to Estonia in 1927. Was accused of forwarding secret information to the USSR and was in pretrial imprisonment, in November 1927 was acquitted by the Tallinn-Haapsalu Peace Council (Rahukogu). After that a businessman in Tallinn.

In 1917-1924 chairman of the Tallinn Voluntary Society of Firemen, in 1919-1922 chairman of the All-Estonian Union of Firemen. On the second half of 1920s and in the 1930s active in the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (EAOC), 1939-1940 the Ecumenical Secretary of the EAOC.

Arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police) 14.06.1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, was sentenced to death but died before the execution.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:00:48 +0000
Jaan Tõnisson https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5110-jaan-tonisson https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5110-jaan-tonisson * 22.12.1868 in the Tänassilma rural municipality Viljandi County
† unknown

 

Prime Minister
18.11.1919-29.07.1920
30.071920-26.10.1920
Head of State (Elder of State)
09.12.1927-04.12.1928
18.05.1933-21.10.1933

 

1915 - 1917 Chairman of the Northern Baltic Committee. 1917 - 1918 member of the Estonian Foreign Delegation, 1918-1919 a minister without portfolio of the Provisional Government, as a Minister the representative of Estonia abroad. 1923-1925 Chairman of the II Riigikogu, 1931-1932 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1932-33 Chairman of the V Riigikogu. Member of the I Russian Duma 1905-1907, member of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanäukogu) 1917-1919, member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu) 1919-1920, member of the I-V Riigikogu 1920-1934/37, member of the Riigivolikogu (second chamber of the Riigikogu 1938-1940) 1938-1940.

Finished the State High School of Estonian Province in Tallinn, studied at the law department of the Tartu University in 1889-1892, graduated as a Candidate of Law.

1893-1894 worked in the office of the "Postimees" newspaper. 1894-1896 a court prosecutor and candidate to the office of Justice in the Oryol Province.

1896-1930 the owner of the newspaper "Postimees", 1896-1935 also Editor-in-Chief. 1898-1930 owner of a "Postimees" printing house and a bookstore in Tartu, as well as barrister. In 1908 imprisoned for signing the Vyborg Appeal (the appeal of the Estonian politicians against the activities of the punishment squads in Estonia after the First Russian Revolution), 1935-1939 Cooperation Professor at the Tartu University.

1898-1917 member of the Tartu Estonian Farmers' Society, 1902 Member of the Council of the Estonian Loan and Savings Society, 1908-1917 Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Estonian Youth Education Society and 1909-1916 also of the girls' high school belonging to the Society, 1909-1920 Member of the Board of the Estonian Literature Society. 1932-1940 Chairman of the Estonian-British Society, 1933-1940 Chairman of the Estonian-Swedish society.

Cross of Freedom III/1. From 1921, Honorary Alumnus of the Estonian Students? Society, from 1928 Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University, from 1939 Honorary Citizen of Tartu. From 1928 Honorary Member of the Tartu Voluntary Fire Brigade, from 1922 HM of the Vanemuine Society, from 1929 HM of the Estonian Literary Society, from 1930-1933 of the Estonian Journalists' Society, from 1931 HM of the Estonian Abstinence Society, as well as of the Tartu Estonian Farmers' Society and the Tartu Male Singing Society, etc.

Arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police) in December 1940, according to some data shot in Tallinn in July 1941.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:05:11 +0000
Otto (August) Strandman https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5113-otto-august-strandman https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5113-otto-august-strandman * 30.11.1875 Neeruti rural municipality, Viru County
† 05.02.1941 in Undla, Viru County 

 

Prime Minister
09.05.1919-18.11.1919
Head of State (Elder of State)
25.01.1921-21.11.1922

 

In 1917-1918 Chairman of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), in 1918 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1918-1919 Minister of Agriculture of the Provisional Government. In 1918 arrested by the German occupation powers. 1919 Prime Minister and also Minister of War, 1920-1921 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1921 Chairman of I Riigikogu, 1924 Minister of Foreign Affairs, later Minister of Finances, 1927-29 Estonian Ambassador to Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania, 1933 Ambassador to France, Belgium and Vatican. 1917-1919 Member of the Estonian Province Assembly, 1919-1920 Member of the Constitutent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-34/37, member of the I-V Riigikogu.

Went to the Emperor Alexander State High School in Tallinn and the 5th and 7th High School in St. Petersburg, passed the final exams at the Estonian Province State High School in Tallinn. Thereafter, worked in the Tallinn Office of the Russian State Bank for three years. In 1899-1900 studied in the law department of Tartu University and in 1901-1903 in the law department of the St. Petersburg University.

1903-1905 a lawyer in Narva and in Tallinn, 1904-1905 and 1917 a member of the Tallinn City Council. Participated in the Russian revolution of 1905, after that lived in 1905-1909 in Switzerland and other European countries as an exile. 1909- 1917 a barrister in Tallinn. 1917 the prosecutor of the Tallinn District Court.

Has been a member of the Council of the theatre Estonia, the Tallinn Savings and Loans Society and other non-governmental organisations.

Cross of Freedom III/1. Honorary Doctor of Law of the Tartu University.

1941 committed suicide at the time when the NKGB (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police) officers came to arrest him. Buried to the Siselinna Cemetery, in Tallinn.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:04:15 +0000
Konstantin Päts https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5109-konstantin-paets https://president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/heads-of-state/5109-konstantin-paets * 23.02.1874 in Tahkuranna
† 18.01.1956 in Burashevo, Oblast of Kalinin (Tver), Russia 

 

Prime Minister of the Provisional Government
24.02.1918-09.05.1919
Head of State (Elder of State)
25.01.1921-21.11.1922
02.08.1923-26.03.1924
12.02.1931-19.02.1932
21.10.1933-24.01.1934
Prime Minister in the Duties of the Head of State
24.01.1934-03.09.1937
Protector of State
03.09.1937-24.04.1938
President
24.04.1938-17.06.1940

 

1917-1918 Chairman of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu). 1918, Chairman of the Estonian Rescue Committee. 1918, imprisoned by the German occupation powers, from July to November 1918 in a prison camp in Poland. In 1918, while the Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Estonia, as well as the Minister of Internal Affairs, 1918 the Minister of War. 1922-1923 Chairman of I Riigikogu.1917-1919 member of the Estonian Province Assembly, 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-1934/37 member of the I-V Riigikogu.

Finished the Pärnu State High School, studied at the Law Department of the Tartu University in 1894-1898, Candidate of Law.

1898-1899 compulsory army service in Pskov, 1900-1901 solicitor by barrister J. Poska in Tallinn. 1901.1905 editor of the ?Teataja? (The Gazette) newspaper. 1904-1905 Member of Tallinn City Council, Assistant Mayor in 1905. Participated in the Russian Revolution of 1905, escaped abroad, was sentenced to death by default by the Russian court-martial. 1905-1906 exile in Switzerland, 1906-1909 in Finland. In 1909 in St. Petersburg gave himself up to the court authorities and was sentenced to 9 months of imprisonment, served the punishment in the "Kresty" prison of St. Petersburg. 1908-1910 editor of the "St. Petersburg Gazette" (Peterburi Teataja, an Estonian newspaper in St. Petersburg). 1911-1916 editor of the "Tallinna Teataja" (The Tallinn Gazette), 1916-1917 army service in Tallinn. In 1917, Chairman of the Supreme Committee of the Estonian Military in Tallinn.

1919-1933 Chairman of the "Estonian Lloyd" insurance company (intermittently, during his times as a member of the Government of the Republic, 1925.1929 Chairman of the Board of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, from 1935 Honorary Councillor, 1925-1936 Chairman of the Estonian-Finnish-Hungarian Association, from 1936 Honorary Chairman, 1927-1937 Chairman of the "Fenno-Ugria" Foundation, Chairman of the Board of the Harju Bank, Chairman of the Tallinn Exchange Committee. Owner of the Kloostrimetsa farmstead in the vicinity of Tallinn.

1928 Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University, in 1938 Honorary Doctor of Sciences of the Tallinn Technical University and the University of Andhra (India). 1938 Honorary Member of the Estonian Naturalists' Society, Honorary Member of the Learned Estonian Society, Honorary Member of the Estonian Institute of Natural Resources, 1939 Honorary Member of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Honorary Alumnus of the student fraternity "Fraternitas Estica". Honorary citizen of Tallinn, Narva, Pärnu and Tartu and the rural municipality of Tahkuranna. Cross of Freedom I/1 and III/1.

Publications in the field of state law and politics.

30.07.1940 imprisoned by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police) and deported to Russia, lived as deportee, then in prison, 1954-56 in the mental hospital of Kalinin, where also died. On 21.10.1990 was reburied to the Metsakalmistu in Tallinn.

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ENG Eesti riigipead Mon, 30 Aug 2010 08:05:25 +0000