* 24.09.1872 in Illuste, Lääne County
† beginning of July 1941, Tallinn
Head of State (Elder of State)
1917-1919 member of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu) and 1923-1934/1937 member of the II-V Riigikogu. 1918 Attorney General of the Republic of Estonia.
Studied in H. Treffner's Private High School, in 1901 graduated from the Department of Law the St. Petersburg University.
Was a solicitor in Tallinn. 1904-1905 was a member of the Tallinn Municipal Council. Participated in the revolution of 1905, escaped to Switzerland in the same year and was sentenced to death by default. In 1908, came back to Estonia after the end of the state of war, was in pretrial imprisonment in 1908-1909 and was sentenced to prison for one and a half years, bore the sentence in St. Petersburg. In 1911- 1913 was in exile in the Arkhangelsk Province. 1913/1914-1940 a barrister in Tallinn, 1919- 1925 Chairman of the Bar. In 1939-1940, the Estonian trustee in the German Trustee Government (an organisation for managing of the property of the resettled Baltic-Germans in 1939-1940).
1932 Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University.
23.07.1940 was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police), was probably shot in Tallinn or died in the Tallinn Central Prison. According to other data was sentenced to prison camp for 10 years on 21.10.1941, no information of his further fate.